Monday, January 20, 2020

Computers And Marketing :: essays research papers

Computers And Marketing Marketing is the process by which goods are sold and purchased. The aim of marketing is to acquire, retain, and satisfy customers. Modern marketing has evolved into a complex and diverse field. This field includes a wide variety of special functions such as advertising, mail-order business, public relations, retailing and merchandising, sales, market research, and pricing of goods. Businesses, and particularly the marketing aspect of businesses, rely a great deal on the use of computers. Computers play a significant role in inventory control, processing and handling orders, communication between satelite companies in an organization, design and production of goods, manufacturing, product and market analysis, advertising, producing the company newsletter, and in some cases, complete control of company operations. In today's extremely competitive business environment businesses are searching for ways to improve profitability and to maintain their position in the marketplace. As competition becomes more intense the formula for success becomes more difficult. Two particular things have greatly aided companies in their quests to accomplish these goals. They are the innovative software products of CAD/CAM and, last but not least, the World Wide Web. An important program has aided companies all over the world. Computer- aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is the integration of two technologies. It has often been called the new industrial revolution. In CAD, engineers and designers use specialized computer software to create models that represent characteristics of objects. These models are analyzed by computer and redesigned as necessary. This allows companies needed flexibility in studying different and daring designs without the high costs of building and testing actual models, saving millions of dollars. In CAM, designers and engineers use computers for planning manufacturing processes, testing finished parts, controlling manufacturing operations, and managing entire plants. CAM is linked to CAD through a database that is shared by design and manufacturing engineers. The major applications of CAD/CAM are mechanical design and electronic design. Computer-aided mechanical design is usually done with automated drafting programs that use interactive computer graphics. Information is entered into the computer to create basic elements such as circles, lines, and points. Elements can be rotated, mirrored, moved, and scaled, and users can zoom in on details. Computerized drafting is quicker and more accurate than manual drafting. It makes modifications much easier. Desktop manufacturing enables a designer to construct a model directly from data which is stored in computer memory. These software programs help designers to consider both function and manufacturing consequences at early stages, when designs are easily modified. More and more manufacturing businesses are integrating CAD/CAM with other aspects of production, including inventory tracking, scheduling, and marketing. This idea, known as computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), speeds processing Computers And Marketing :: essays research papers Computers And Marketing Marketing is the process by which goods are sold and purchased. The aim of marketing is to acquire, retain, and satisfy customers. Modern marketing has evolved into a complex and diverse field. This field includes a wide variety of special functions such as advertising, mail-order business, public relations, retailing and merchandising, sales, market research, and pricing of goods. Businesses, and particularly the marketing aspect of businesses, rely a great deal on the use of computers. Computers play a significant role in inventory control, processing and handling orders, communication between satelite companies in an organization, design and production of goods, manufacturing, product and market analysis, advertising, producing the company newsletter, and in some cases, complete control of company operations. In today's extremely competitive business environment businesses are searching for ways to improve profitability and to maintain their position in the marketplace. As competition becomes more intense the formula for success becomes more difficult. Two particular things have greatly aided companies in their quests to accomplish these goals. They are the innovative software products of CAD/CAM and, last but not least, the World Wide Web. An important program has aided companies all over the world. Computer- aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is the integration of two technologies. It has often been called the new industrial revolution. In CAD, engineers and designers use specialized computer software to create models that represent characteristics of objects. These models are analyzed by computer and redesigned as necessary. This allows companies needed flexibility in studying different and daring designs without the high costs of building and testing actual models, saving millions of dollars. In CAM, designers and engineers use computers for planning manufacturing processes, testing finished parts, controlling manufacturing operations, and managing entire plants. CAM is linked to CAD through a database that is shared by design and manufacturing engineers. The major applications of CAD/CAM are mechanical design and electronic design. Computer-aided mechanical design is usually done with automated drafting programs that use interactive computer graphics. Information is entered into the computer to create basic elements such as circles, lines, and points. Elements can be rotated, mirrored, moved, and scaled, and users can zoom in on details. Computerized drafting is quicker and more accurate than manual drafting. It makes modifications much easier. Desktop manufacturing enables a designer to construct a model directly from data which is stored in computer memory. These software programs help designers to consider both function and manufacturing consequences at early stages, when designs are easily modified. More and more manufacturing businesses are integrating CAD/CAM with other aspects of production, including inventory tracking, scheduling, and marketing. This idea, known as computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), speeds processing

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Observations of Child Development

This paper will discuss a child that was observed on a number of occasions in their family setting at home. It will explore the student social worker's understanding of child development linking theory and reality.. A critical account based on six observations sessions of the child development on†¦.. Drawing on what has been seen and student knowledge on appropriate milestones, literature research and social work theory.The student will reflect on their role as an observer and what has been learnt during the process of observation and it's relevance to social work Different areas of development are inter-related. The ideas, language, communication, feelings, relationships and other cultural elements among which each child is brought up influence his or her development profoundly. (Carolyn Megabit and Gerald Cumberland) (2000) Child Development : An illustrated guide. Henchman.The skills of observation are important and the importance of tone of voice and body language, particula rly when the words spoken might be saying something completely different. Sometimes observing teaches you things that you can't be told and sometimes we are tuned to listen instead of look. A part of the process of becoming a social worker is observation. Observation is the power to see what isn't obvious. Observation is seeing and hearing, and also seeing what's missing, picking up on what is omitted, analytically processing whilst doing the observation.It's important we understand observation is a powerful tool in our assessment and intervention. Observing is an essential skill for everyone working with children. ( Carolyn Megabit and Gerald Cumberland) (2000). Observation helps social workers and students to reflect upon situations before intervening (Pat El Richer and Karee Tanner) Using observational methods are helpful in describing individual's behavior as they interact in real time; and allow the reader to create a verbal picture of the behaviors as they unfold.This is impor tant when social workers are working with children and families in their home (Pipelining, 1996:1), and there is a growing recognition in social work literature around observation in practice (Richer & Tanner, 1998:17). On my first observation I was not nervous but did feel intrusive about entering the Morris's home, I had meet them a few days before and they were very welcoming which eased some of the anxieties I had. I know that as a qualified social worker on some occasions (e. G. Hill protection) I will be meeting the family for the first time when conducting a home visit and they might not be welcoming.Taking the role of observer is what I was most apprehensive about, I was unsure of what to expect on†¦ Cognitive and language development Cognitive or intellectual development is development of the mind- the part of the brain that that is used for recognizing, reasoning, knowing and understanding. Language development is development of communication skills : Receptive speech : what a person understands Expressive speech- the words the persons produces Articulation- the person's actual pronunciations of wordsETC can build towers, can copy a building pattern of three or more cubes 3 years ; Remember and repeat songs and nursery rhymes ; Use personal pronouns and plurals correctly and give their own name and sex and sometimes age ; Carry on simple conversations, often missing link words such as the and is ; Learn to speak more than one language if they hear more than one language spoken around them as they grow ; Enjoys listening to and making music ; Can control their attention, choosing to stop an activity and return to it without much difficulty ; Counts by rote up to ten or more Enjoys playing on the floor with bricks, boxes, toy trains and dolls ;Joins in active make-believe play ; y with other children A Child Observation Assignment By Marie Tree Date Posted: December 1 5th This article was written by Marie Tree in 2010 as a record of her child obser vation assignment for her post-qualifying Specialist Social Work Award course at Portsmouth University. When submitting it article Marie wrote remarked that when completing this assignment she was taken â€Å"back to my early days in the sass's when I did have what now seems the luxury of reflecting on my practice. † [pick] Marie Tree In childhood, everything was more vivid – the sun brighter, the smell of fields sharper, the thunder louder, the rain more abundant and the grass taller†.Constantine Passports The context for my observation was a local authority Children's Centre which provides Offset registered care for babies and children between O months and 5 years. The Children's Centre has been classed as ‘Outstanding' by Offset since June 2006 and has been working with children with additional needs since the sass's. The setting was a group of 12 children of mixed sexes, all of mixed abilities such as physical and learning difficulties. The group was we ll staffed (by women) with some children having one to one support. The setting is headed by a teacher and the Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum guides the work, and the children learn through play.The observations were based upon the Atavistic model (Pick 1964) and my remit was to observe a child for lax hours and record my observations after the sessions. I also included my reflections, dilemmas and prejudices with my seminar group. The staff at the Children's Centre were aware of my role, and the purpose of my observations. A oh year old little girl was selected and I shall call her Anna (pseudonym). I had no contact with Anna's parents, although the Children's Centre informed them of my remit and they gave their written consent. The first session took place after lunch and I placed myself at the back of the room, discreetly tucked into a corner hoping that my presence would not be noticed. How wrong I was!The room was filled with an array of spontaneous discoveries, books, toys, computers, sand, paint and dressing up clothes and the clutter of noise and emotions reminded me of my own home where I have three young children, where exploring the world extends their nascent theories as to how the world works. Initially, I found it very difficult to sit and focus on Anna solely, as I was used to talking and making eye contact with children, and not being able to engage or speak was difficult. For the first session, I watched Anna intently and I had to clear my head of any Judgments of her which were purely based on bits of information I had picked up from staff.I had based assumptions of Anna's background and life, which were purely speculative and ill informed. It was this reflection that helped me focus between fact and feeling and challenging myself on how the information I had been given about Anna had given considerable weight in owe I thought she might play and socialize with other children. I needed to separate these two contradictory parts (Goldst ein, 1990). I watched Anna carefully glide from one activity to the next, first playing with the sand letting it quickly sift through her fingers and making shapes and marks with the palms of her hands. She slowly toddled off when a young boy, eager to play more adventurously nudged her out of the way.Watching Anna play, I did think of her goals and what she was trying to create through her thought and actions, and I did think of Piglet's (1973) theory on children's cognitive development. Again, I had to challenge my assumptions on stages of Piglet's theory as they are not fixed and concrete in any child. On several occasions, children came up to me bringing toys, books and requests to go to the toilet, and at one point, a young child stood in front of me for what seemed like a very long time. I replied only briefly to the children and avoided eye contact when possible. My desire to become involved with the children was very strong, and it was difficult to refuse a simple request fr om a small child.However, remaining in a passive role allowed me to stand back and slow down and examine in detail the allegations with the child. (Bridge et al, 1996, p. 1 13). The method of sitting observing Anna was at times alien to me and having no prescriptive focus other than observe made me feel vulnerable. It felt like the anxieties that Seal (2003) identified in his work as ‘professionals giving up control and being open to what is emerging'. (Seal, 2003, p. 16). How I managed my feelings around observing Anna also reminded me of the work by Isabel Minimizes Lath (1989) who wrote about anxiety and how its experience, expression and sublimations are a major factor in determining personal ND institutional behavior.I often refer to the work of Isabel Minimizes Lath when I am faced with uncertainties, and it is my acknowledgment and containment of these feelings that will impact on the overall work that I do with children and their families. In the room with Anna, I had to contain my feelings around the observation. Anna continued throughout my observation to drift from one activity to the next. At one point, I observed her clasp the hand of a worker and pull her gently towards the book corner. The worker gently tapped the hand of Anna, letting her know she was aware of the request. At that moment, I thought of how unique and complex children are as they do not have the language to explain how they think and explore the world that surrounds them. By slowing down and observing them, we have the advantage and a willingness to speculate.Ending the hour observation was less problematic than I thought and I quietly put my coat on and said goodbye with a few children holding gaze with me as I left the room. In the next session with Anna, I felt more relaxed and in tune with what I was trying to do. It was much more comfortable not having to put any kind of theory into practice. I had the added luxury of not having paper and pens or an assessment to compl ete. It was a time to observe Anna and explore my own feelings. Anna made eye contact with me on a few occasions and I would not be convinced that she knew that I was watching her; however, that is purely my interpretation. In this session, Anna lay dozing on and off on a bean bag, and although she already had had a nap earlier, she seemed somewhat tired and lethargic that day.Beside Anna, on a separate beanbag, lay a child with cerebral palsy, and at that moment, I felt a gush of emotion run through me, and I was minded of my own child with learning and mobility problems. Two children, side by side, one able bodied and the other, confined to a soft cushion. Rusting (2004) identifies this problem well and suggests that recognizing feelings and working with this is very important in the work that we do. I am aware as a practitioner, that we risk professional dangerousness if our roles and boundaries are not clearly defined. Our relationships with clients need to be based on objectivi ty and self awareness. This allows us to step outside our emotional needs and to be sensitive to the needs of others. (HOMOS, 1988: Protecting Children).I believe for any effective intervention, the worker must remain quite distinct and separate, whole and intact. It was good to be able to discuss my feelings with my seminar group and it is Erikson (1950) who talks about basic trust as the first stage of the eight stages of man. I believe that talking about observations was now similar to that described by Wainscot (1965) as holding and Boon (1962) as containing, and what emerged from the seminar group was a secure base where thoughts and feelings could be openly discussed amongst ourselves, and it was the first time that as a seminar group, that we spoke freely and openly about experiences during observations.The remaining sessions observing Anna became enjoyable and watching her play was fascinating as her tiny hands grasped and touched the toys and objects around her. By observin g her, I was to enter her world of self wonderment and capture moments by focusing solely on her. I am aware of the importance of endings and although I had clearly given my remit to the staff, I said goodbye to the children and thanked them for allowing me to sit in their class. I think that they were more interested in circle time and the nursery rhymes to notice my quiet departure from the room. Conclusion Observing Anna had brought back the sense of refocusing on the child and their world. Being able to discuss feelings within the seminar group helped to contain hidden ideologies and prejudices within myself.Humphreys (1988) puts this very well by describing ‘perspective transformation' in which we can reflect and challenge our belief system, and through this, transformation occurs. Having no social work task to do was a luxury. To sit and observe was a chance to explore the children's lack of power, vulnerability and dependence on adults. So much of social work time is sp ent n the speed of completing assessments, ticking boxes, and only the neediest of children receive a service. In my view, much is lost to the benefits of observing children. Too often, only a snapshot of a child is all that a social worker can grasp when working with children and much is lost by not having a space for reflective and analytical practice which gives the worker a platform to critically evaluate and challenge their work.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Augustus Caesar Essay - 1118 Words

Augustus Caesar Works Cited Missing Augustus Caesar, the Romes first true Emperor was the historical figure who had the greatest impact upon the western world between the dawn of civilization and the end of the middle ages. Augustus Caesar (31B.C. - 14 A.D.) was originally named Gaius Octivian, the name Augustus was granted by the Roman Senate, which means magnificent. The success of Augustus was he developed an honest government, and during his reign, he rebuilt many structures to improve the Roman Empire, which included temples and roads with classical style. He created an efficient postal service that encouraged free trade among the region. The soul power of Augustus had established him to distribute the long standing of†¦show more content†¦Meanwhile, Augustus role of emperor was to never call himself emperor. He referred to himself as the first citizen. In this way Augustus presented himself as an ordinary Roman citizen doing his duty to the state. During his reign, he developed a fiscal policy, which made the economy stronger by collecting taxes. He believed that peoples fortunes were going down the drain thus private individuals were able to save nothing or almost nothing because, in addition to the other exactions, they were obliged to find slaves for the navy, buying them if they had none, and senators had to mend the roads at their own expenses. Only those who bore arms got rich (Millar and Sega, 109). At first, the tax system was only approved by the senate. The tax which was collected would flow directly into private and public landed property, rebuild structures, census and contribute five percent tax to manumission of slaves (Millar and Sega, 110). These tax are only applied to citizens which the fiscal system had benefits for them, by the guarantee of the security of property. The tax that was collected was also contributed to rebuild the Roman Empire. Augustus claimed he had rebuilt eighty-two different structures, including roads, aqueducts, temples and buildings with remarkable work of art created a classical style. Most of them were constructed of hardShow MoreRelatedEssay on Augustus Caesar859 Words   |  4 PagesAugustus Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian as he was called until the adoption by Caesar, later called Augustus Caesar) was born 23 September, 63 BC. Augustus was the grand-nephew of Julius Caesar and later became his heir after he learned that his grand-uncle had adopted him. Augustus Caesar was with out a doubt the greatest political leader in the Roman Empire. He made Rome what think of it as and what we study today. Octavian’s first public appearance was in 51 BC whenRead MoreAugustus Caesar vs. Julius Caesar Essay673 Words   |  3 PagesAugustus’ sustainable yet inclusive reign of power, combined with his ability to please and play to the Roman masses, permitted his reign as ruler to be far more secure than Julius Caesar’s. Both leaders began their reign over Rome in a similar manner. While Julius took over Gaul at his initiation as a leader, Augustus took over Egypt in his corresponding commencement. They then continued to wage war against their respective partners in power; Julius against Pompey, and Augustus against Marc AntonyRead More The Politics of Caesar Augustus Essays2631 Words   |  11 PagesThe Politics of Caesar Augustus In 31BC Augustus won the battle of Actium against his former colleague in the triumvirate, but now bitter rival, Antony and the queen of Egypt, Cleopatra, after having been in the triumvirate since 43BC. This immediately faced him with a grating predicament; he now sought to fit his own position, as sole remaining member of the triumvirate, with the old republican system. He had several problems, one of which was that all through the civil war with Antony heRead MoreRoman Empire: Emperor Caesar Augustus 660 Words   |  3 Pagesever waged war against your wife? Caesar Octavian Augustus did. Augustus was a great leader. Leaders are necessary because they need to show leadership amongst the people and unite the people as one doing anything to keep them safe. Caesar Octavian Augustus was one of Rome’s greatest leaders by showing that at the age of 19, he can rule one of the most powerful nations by any means including war (http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/empire/augustus.html) Octavian Augustus is one of the fiercest leadersRead MoreAugustus Caesar and Emperor Nero Comparision980 Words   |  4 PagesI believe that being a beloved leader has a huge effect on being a better ruler. In 44 B.C. Julius Caesar was assassinated by his senate chamber. Soon his nephew and adopted son, Gaius Octavian, would join forces with Mark Anthony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus into a three-way dictatorship. This transformed Rome from being a Monarchy into being a dictatorship. Lepidus left Rome soon after Octavian began reign and went on to lead parts of Africa and Hispania. In 37 B.C. Mary Anthony met Cleopatra. TheyRead MoreThe, Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus1382 Words   |  6 PagesAve, Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus, I will make this report concise as to not waste your time since I know you are a busy man and have an empire to run. I have separated the report of the outline for your amphitheatre into five parts. The five parts consist of the following: 1) Location 2) Size 3) Accessibility 4) Arena structure and features 5) Funding I. I propose that we construct the amphitheatre to the right of Saepta Julia in the Campus Martius. The amphitheatre will be built in betweenRead MoreWhy Augustus Caesar was a Better Ruler than Julius Caesar652 Words   |  3 Pageswithout a doubt Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar. These two men have defined leadership for a country. Many other countries have modeled their ethics and used them as their own to better themselves as a whole. Without these two men, our world would not be the same in just about every way. Although these two men were both great, one of them was better than the other. Although Julius Caesar was a dominant leader, Augustus Caesar was certainly the better leader. Julius Caesar was said to be a greatRead More Augustus Caesar: The Greatest Ruler in the Ancient World Essay1367 Words   |  6 Pagestheir life to becoming great. Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar was part of the latter due to his achievements that set the foundation for an empire devastated by civil war. Despite the turmoil of the Roman Empire after the assassination of his adoptive father, Julius Caesar, he led Rome to social, political and economic prosperity and stability. His military tactics marked the beginning of a dynasty that saw a massive expansion of the Roman Empire. Thus, Augustus Caesar’s contributions to the Roman EmpireRead More Augustus Caesar - The First Roman Emperor Essay782 Words   |  4 Pages Augustus Caesar - The First Roman Emperor In ancient history there have been many great leaders who had saved the Roman Empire from destruction and demise. The leaders and heroes of the Roman Empire are countless, but one leader stands out from all the rest. Augustus Caesar’s contributions to Roman history helped make Rome the dominant empire we know of today. Augustus Caesar was without a question the greatest political leader in the history of the Roman Empire.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As a young adolescentRead MoreEssay about Comparison on Qin and Augustus Caesar1177 Words   |  5 Pages Comparing Augustus and Qin Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi was crowned king in 246 BC during the Warring States era (475-221 BC). Two centuries later, Caesar Augustus founded the Roman Empire and became Rome’s first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. Both emperors ruled with distinct and individual morals in which they laid upon their society. Both rulers utilized military victories, new code laws, and established a sense of unity throughout the land. Each contribution to their state

Friday, December 27, 2019

Outline Of Benjamin Franklin s Leadership - 2229 Words

Jonathan Wong Mrs. Burke AP US History 17 April 2015 Research Paper: Benjamin Franklin Leadership is a trait that few people possess, but many are influenced by its powerful qualities. Leadership has been described by most accounts as the ability to unite a group under one common goal or task. This crucial quality is necessary in order to be remembered by many people. It is necessary when people around you need guidance, or a sense of direction. When people need guidance, they look to figures of power or authority, to ultimately lead them in the right direction. Many years later, that person, who had leaded others, will be revered. This reverence, or legacy that they leave behind, will make them a hero. People who possessed great leadership throughout history left a huge legacy behind with them. Ben Franklin, a radical during the 18th century for revolution, was a wealthy man of Pennsylvania who possessed great leadership throughout the course of his life. The stand out quality he possessed, his great knowledge, enabled him to lead gre at numbers of people in their interests. This quality made him looked up upon as a revolutionary by all of the United States, and people were willing to unite behind Franklin due to his self-made image. Years after Franklin had passed, people still remembered and celebrated his legacy every day in the names of warships, towns, and buildings. Benjamin Franklin was a leading revolutionary all of his life due to his educated background andShow MoreRelatedMachiavellian Leadership : The Prince1285 Words   |  6 PagesMachiavellian Leadership: Are These Principles Morally Correct to Use Today? For centuries, the political principles brought forth through Nicolà ² Machiavelli in his writing, The Prince, have been quite controversial both on the political forefront and the mainstream of leadership training. Though most people do not know that they are fighting battles over the principles brought about in the writing of Machiavelli. The Prince was written in the years following Machiavelli’s time in the politicalRead MoreThe Debate On Same Sex Marriage1934 Words   |  8 Pagesequality. Because conservatives are strict on laws, they tend to lean toward powers outline in the constitution by our founding fathers. The conservatives believe that marriage equality is neither a national issue nor it is a Supreme Court issue. They favor religious view, moral values as the base of decision-making and public policies voting. The Republican Party platform from one of the election year was â€Å"embrace[s] the principle that all Americans should be treated with respect and dig nity,† however;Read Moretalent development Essay1625 Words   |  7 Pagesand nurture your Culture and Organization through your People SME Evolution Program Fall 2012 – Talent Development #SMEEP  © Potential.com Quote Hide not your talents. They for use were made. What’s a sundial in the shade? Benjamin Franklin SME Evolution Program Fall 2012 – Talent Development #SMEEP  © Potential.com What defines Talent Development? Explore content How would you define Talent Development ? SME Evolution Program Fall 2012 – Talent Development Read MorePre-Columbian Period9302 Words   |  38 Pagesoperation of the new government and efforts soon began to improve upon it.[28] The territory of the newly formed USA was much smaller than it is today. 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Purposes of the school B .Educational experiences related to the purposes c. Organization of the experiences d . Evaluation of the experiences Hilda Taba madeRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesBusiness Review Finance Articles The Power of Management Capital Feigenbaum−Feigenbaum International Management, Sixth Edition Hodgetts−Luthans−Doh Contemporary Management, Fourth Edition Jones−George Driving Shareholder Value Morin−Jarrell Leadership, Fifth Edition Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy The Art of M A: Merger/Acquisitions/Buyout Guide, Third Edition Reed−Lajoux and others . . . This book was printed on recycled paper. Management http://www.mhhe.com/primis/online/ Copyright  ©2005Read MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 PagesCongress Subject Headings: Principles and Application, Fourth Edition Lois Mai Chan Developing Library and Information Center Collections, Fifth Edition G. 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Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Analysis of Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre Essays - 1499 Words

Analysis of Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre Jane Eyre was written by Charlotte Brontà « under the male pseudonym of Currer Bell in 1847. It is a semi autobiography and is a mixture of realism, romance and Gothic. During this time women were seen as beings of inferior status. The plot of Jane Eyre follows a bildungsroman. Janes growth is traced from childhood and innocence to adulthood and maturity. It depicts the story of a woman who is capable of strong emotions and passion and the difficulties she must overcome. There were two ideas of a woman the angel and the monster. The angel was submissive, obedient, had no sense of identity and lived purely to please her husband. Differently the†¦show more content†¦She stands up to John Reed, you are like a murderer- you are like a slave driver- you are like the Roman emperors, which conveys that she has a strong sense of justice and a desire to be treated fairly. This response goes against that of the stereotypical Victorian girl as they were perceived to be obedient and submissive. She is banished to the red room for retaliating to John Reed. The red room introduces the Gothic elements, it symbolises the emotional suppression faced by Victorian women in society and epitomises Janes isolation. It is decided that Jane will go to school and in chapter four she meets her future headmaster. Brontà « uses phallic imagery to describe Mr Brocklehurst the straight narrow, sable- clad shape standing erect on the rug, which exaggerates the dominating patriarchal male. When Mr Brockelhurst questions her about hell, her reply is impertinent, I must keep in good health and not die. Mr Brocklehurst reveals the hypocrisy of his Christian value because although he advocates physical suffering for the girls at Lowood, his wife and daughters are allowed to wear fancy clothes and rich jewels. Mrs Reed intimates that Jane has a tendency to deceit this comment hurts Jane deeplyShow MoreRelatedEssay on An Analysis of Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre1431 Words   |  6 PagesAn Analysis of Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre is presented in the Victorian Period of England. It is a novel which tells the story of a childs maturation into adulthood. Janes developing personality has been shaped by her rough childhood. She has been influenced by many people and experiences. As a woman of her time, Jane has had to deal with the strain of physical appearance. This has a great effect on her mental thinking and decision making. Jane Eyres cognitiveRead MoreAnalysis Of Charlotte Brontes Beloved Novel Jane Eyre1750 Words   |  7 Pages The Many Lovely Things of Jane Charlotte Bronte’s beloved novel Jane Eyre stepped out of the literary world and into our own when The Hale Center Theatre in Orem, Utah set this moving story to the stage. This follows the narrative of a young Jane Eyre, starting as an orphan in a victorian society, she struggles to find a place to belong. After being branded as a troubled and mischievousness child she is sent to a religious christian school to learn her place. Here she finds a much needed friendRead MoreJane Eyre Feminist Analysis1066 Words   |  5 Pagestheir intuition. Jane Eyre, a semi-autobiography by Charlotte Brontà «, is an exemplary novel where an untraditional heroine defies societal normality. The female protagonist Jane Eyre exhibits a self-created drive for personal success and a perpetual ambition to learn, characteristics customary of men. After the publication of Jane Eyre, many critics has viewed it through the feminist literary lenses, claiming it to contain biblical feminism. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

School Vouchers Education Choices Essay Example For Students

School Vouchers: Education Choices Essay School Vouchers:Education ChoicesMulticultural Vocational Education for a Pluralistic SocietyEDS 114, Summer 2000S. CarinciAugust 18, 2000School Vouchers:Education ChoicesThe concept of educational vouchers was brought to public attention several decades ago with Milton Friedman, a Nobel Prize-winning economist who promoted it as a technique to improve the educational system (US News and World Report, 1998, p.25). The voucher plan, although differing across the country, generally intends to improve the schooling opportunities available to the minorities and the poor by increasing their ability to enter private schools while simultaneously encouraging the building of new schools outside the current bureaucratic structure. Currently, public schools are supported by a combination of taxes collected by state and local governments. The voucher plan turns this system upside down by continuing to collect the taxes, but then immediately distributing them completely to parents to decide which school should be funded. It creates a controlled market in which schools compete for students and students enroll in schools that best accommodate their needs. The vouchers would more or less be equal to the current expense level per pupil in public schools. Generally school vouchers are supported by Republicans and opposed by Democrats. Needless to say, the voucher has become a significant source of debate. The Republican Party and other advocates of the plan argue that vouchers free disadvantaged students from flunking public schools and that they also spur public schools to improve by creating competition for students. In the June of 1998, a poll conducted by the Organization and Phi Delta Kappa, a professional education association, showed that 51% of Americans favor vouchers while only 45% oppose them (Majority, 1998,p.857), It is public schools moral culture and not merely a concern with academic quality that underlies the controversy over subsidization of nonpublic schools. If public schools became first-rate academically, there would still be a demand for private schools(Hanus, 1997, p.30). Supporters declare that as long as the tuition voucher belongs to the parent, it is no business of the state to which schools the voucher goes. Comparing the vouchers to food stamps, which do not require regulations on grocery stores, they argue that the school vouchers would not carry with them the regulations which have made public schools less effective. The Democratic Party and opposers of the plan challenge that vouchers siphon resources from the public school system, The deregulation of the public school system through the widespread use of school vouchers would lead to an elementary and secondary school system that is fragmented, inefficient, and inherently unequal( Hanus, 1997, p.30). They argue the fact that since there are roughly 4.9 million students in nonpublic schools and since the average cost for each of these students is around $5,500, the total co st of the voucher money would be in the vicinity of $26.95 billion per year. In addition to this, the opponents of the plan contend that the average transportation costs would increase by approximately $1.5 million (Doerr, 1995). Antagonists of vouchers also point to a study conducted by Money magazine. The results of this research concluded that, Students who attend the best public schools outperform most private school students. The best public schools offer a more challenging curriculum than most private schools. Public school class sizes are no larger than in most private school (Doerr, 1995). Vouchers have been approved in the cities of Milwaukee and Cleveland, and in the state of Florida. In Milwaukee, the children that participated in this voucher program had to have been from relatively impoverished families, and only non-religous schools could participate. The money, which was roughly $2,500 per student annually, went directly to the participating schools. In the fall of 1998, 6,200 students attended 57 religious schools and 30 secular private schools with the aid of these vouchers(US News and World Report, 1998, p.25). In Cleveland, the study commissioned by the Ohio Department of Education measured the performance of a sample of third graders over eight months. The results found that voucher recipients in private schools havent done any better academically than their public-school counterparts. Despite the intensity of this debate, there is no conclusive evidence on the academic impact of school vouchers. Life on the frontier EssayThe controversy of school vouchers is a matter that can be attacked in many various ways. However, the American people need to look at the incentives that can be provided in the future rather than the setbacks. No educational systems are flawless, and in order to improve in one way, something else must suffer. The American educational system is already behind many others and cant wait much longer before falling out of the race. Already 20 foreign nations have subsidized religious education for many years and have not experienced the negative effects anticipated by some. What happens to the American educational system will be decided by the American people. The wait has been too long already and should not be postponed any longer. It is time to make a decision. It is time for school vouchers. Works Cited/BibliographyCarnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. School Choice. Princeton: The Carnegie Foundation, 1992. Doerr, Edd. The Empty Promise of School Vouchers. USA Today (Magazine). March 1997: 88-90. Doerr, Edd; Albert Menendez, and John Swomley. The Case Against School Vouchers. Hanus, Jerome. School Vouchers, Pro and Con. Current. Jan 1997: 30-31. Majority of Americans Favor School Vouchers. The Christian Century. 23 Sept 1998: 857. Public Education: A Monopoly No Longer. US News and World Report. 25 June 1998: 25. Rouse, Cecilia. Private School Vouchers and Student Achievement. Quarterly Journal of Economics. v113 (1998) 553-603. Noll, James Wm. Taking Sides, Dushkin Mcgraw Hill, 1999Shapiro, Walter. Pick a School, Any School. Time. 3 Sept 1990: 70-71. Skillen, James W., The School-Choice Controversy. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1993. Words/ Pages : 1,601 / 24

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Updates on Delivery Room free essay sample

During the first stage of labor, what is the effect of maternal positioning on duration of the first stage of labor, type of delivery, maternal satisfaction, and neonatal and maternal outcomes? Evidence-Based Answer Upright positions include sitting, standing, walking, and kneeling. Based on heterogenous results, women who maintained upright positions had a first stage of labor that was about one hour less than women who were supine or reclined. There were no differences in type of delivery, and there were insufficient data on maternal satisfaction and maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Strength of Recommendation = A, based on consistent and good quality patient-oriented evidence). Practice Pointers Most women in the United States deliver their babies in hospitals. To facilitate intravenous infusions, epidurals, and maternal and fetal monitoring, women often spend much of the first stage of labor in supine or recumbent positions. In this Cochrane review, the authors found 21 studies (n = 3,706) comparing upright with recumbent maternal positions during the first stage of labor. We will write a custom essay sample on Updates on Delivery Room or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Overall, compared with recumbent positions, women who maintained upright positions had a duration that was approximately one hour less for the first stage of labor (mean difference = −0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.60 to −0.39). Participants in upright positions also were less likely to have epidural analgesia (risk ratio = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.96). In a related Cochrane review, assuming a hands and knees maternal position for 10 minutes at a time in late pregnancy did not appear to help rotate babies who presented in occipitoposterior positions, which was based on an analysis of three trials (n = 2,794) that found the maternal position rotates babies temporarily, but the babies do not maintain their occipitoanterior position. 1 Maternal positioning on hands and knees may be beneficial in labor to reduce backache, but there is insufficient evidence that it improves labor outcomes. Studies of maternal positioning in labor are challenging because it is not possible to have participants blinded to allocation groups, and it is difficult to standardize the intervention. Many women cannot easily maintain the position to which they were randomized once their cervical dilation is greater than 5 to 6 cm. Also, the measures taken to encourage adherence to protocols can vary by study. Other Cochrane reviews have documented the benefit of continuous intrapartum support from early labor in decreasing labor duration, likelihood of spontaneous vaginal birth, likelihood of intrapartum analgesia, and dissatisfaction with childbirth experiences.2,3 It is especially beneficial to have continuous support from a person who is not a member of the hospital staff.2 For low-risk deliveries, home-like birth settings in proximity to medical wards are associated with reduced medical intervention, higher rates of spontaneous vaginal birth, and increased maternal satisfaction. 3 These studies lend support to the recommendation that women should be encouraged to labor in the position they find most comfortable.1–3 CLARISSA KRIPKE, MD Author disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Source Lawrence A, Lewis L, Hofmeyr GJ, Dowswell T, Styles C. Maternal positions and mobility during first stage labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD003934. REFERENCES 1. Hunter S, Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R. Hands and knees posture in late pregnancy or labour for fetal malposition (lateral or posterior). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD001063. 2. Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr GJ, Sakala C. Continuous support for women during childbirth.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD003766. 3. Hodnett ED, Downe S, Edwards N, Walsh D. Home-like versus conventional institutional settings for birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(1):CD000012. Instruments for Assisted Vaginal Delivery Am Fam Physician. 2011 Jul 1;84(1):26-27. Related letter: Increased Risks with Serial Vacuum Forceps for Assisted Vaginal Delivery. Clinical Question For assisted vaginal delivery, does the use of forceps or vacuum devices result in lower morbidity for the mother and newborn? Evidence-Based Answer Use of forceps is more likely to result in a vaginal delivery than use of vacuum devices (relative risk [RR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.2), but has a higher rate of perineal trauma, tears, pain, and incontinence, and a trend toward more cesarean deliveries. Use of metal-cup vacuum devices is more likely to result in a vaginal delivery than use of soft-cup devices, but is more likely to cause neonatal scalp injury and cephalohematoma. (Strength of Recommendation = A, based on consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence) Practice Pointers Assisted vaginal deliveries are recommended for fetal distress, failure to deliver after a prolonged second stage of labor, or maternal factors that would make pushing dangerous, such as exhaustion or medical problems. The choice of instrument depends on factors such as the training of the physician, fetal position, and the degree of anesthesia. Vacuum extraction does not require as much anesthesia for the mother as forceps.1 To determine the safest delivery method for the mother and newborn, the authors of this Cochrane review searched for randomized controlled trials comparing methods of assisted vaginal delivery at term. The authors found 32 studies including 6,597 women. Seventeen of the studies compared types of vacuum devices, and 13 studies compared forceps with vacuum devices. Although the failure rate was lower with forceps than with vacuum devices, third- and fourth-degree perineal tears were more common with forceps (RR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.9). Facial injuries in newbor ns were also more common with forceps (RR = 5.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 23). There were no differences between forceps and vacuum devices in Apgar score, shoulder dystocia, need for intubation, severe morbidity, death, or use of maternal analgesia. Compared with soft-cup vacuum devices, use of metal cups was more likely to result in a vaginal delivery but had higher rates of neonatal bruising, cephalohematoma, and scalp injury. There are risks and benefits with different assisted vaginal delivery methods, with no clear superiority of one device over another. However, this review supports the use of vacuum extraction with a soft cup as the first-line method because of its lower risk of harming the newborn. [corrected] CLARISSA KRIPKE, MD Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations to disclose. SOURCE OMahony F, Hofmeyr GJ, Menon V. Choice of instruments for assisted vaginal delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(11):CD005455. REFERENCE 1. Operative vaginal delivery. ACOG Technical Bulletin Number 196—August 1994 (replaces No. 152, February 1991). Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1994;47(2):179–185. 7 Alternative ways to prepare for childbirth and cope with the intensity of labor. Carlsbad, CA (PRWEB) — As the shift toward self-education continues to grow, large numbers of American women are choosing   alternative ways to prepare for childbirth and cope with the intensity of labor. Instead of waiting for the doctor to tell them what they need to know, women are doing more research on their options and exploring ways to make pregnancy and birth less painful. Here is what they are choosing: 1. Birth Networks – These organized, regional groups of pregnant women and birthing professionals meet regularly to educate, empower and support each other and advocate for the improvement of maternity care in their communities. What started as a grassroots movement has exploded across the county. Evidence of a growing trend: Amy Romano of Lamaze International estimates that the number of birth networks has doubled in the past year. Since 2004, the Lamaze Institute for Normal Birth has awarded grants to form and expand birth networks. It also offers organizational resources for birth networks through their website, www.normalbirth.lamaze.org. 2. Birth Stories – Expectant women are hungry for information on labor and birth, and the mainstream media is responding with birth stories. These stories offer much more than entertainment; they provide information on birth options, tools, classes and techniques. The impact of birth stories on expectant parents is quickly coming to the attention of the birth professionals, and many are actively discouraging patients from watching the highly-dramatized birth programs on cable television. Because the level of fear in a laboring woman directly impacts the progression of her labor, birthing professionals are directing patients to read only empowering, inspiring birth stories, such as those found in Journey into Motherhood: Inspirational Stories of Natural Birth http://www.journeyintomotherhood.com (White Heart Publishing, 2005). Evidence of a growing trend: There are now 7 programs on cable television that highlight the experience of labor and delivery. Most pregnancy magazines now feature birth stories on a regular basis, and many birth networks and childbirth educators now sponsor birth-story nights. 3. Hypnosis for Childbirth – Since a 1999 segment on NBC’s Dateline featured hypnosis for childbirth, interest has steadily grown. The HypnoBirthing Method and Hypnobabies are two of the oldest and most popular programs, but with the growing interest in this method, there are now several different programs available, as well as supplemental products such as Journey into Childbirth: Hypnosis for Empowered Birthing by Sheri Menelli. While no program promises a pain-free birth, this is a frequent result. Evidence of a growing trend: In the late 19990s there were only a few hundred educators, and as of this year, there are over 3000. 4. Prenatal yoga – Prenatal yoga strengthens and stretches the muscles that are used in childbirth, and teaches breathing and focusing techniques that help women through labor. Evidence of a growing trend:In San Diego, California, prenatal yoga instructors are reporting an increase in class attendance of approximately 50% over the last three years. Much of the increase is attributed to growing support from doctors, midwives and childbirth educators who send their clients to yoga classes to relieve back pain, reduce tension, and cope with high blood pressure. A number of prenatal yoga videos are now available to women who prefer to practice at home. 5. Water-assisted labor – Widely known as â€Å"nature’s epidural,† warm water can ease the discomfort of labor by helping a woman relax. A â€Å"birthing tub† counters the effect of gravity on her contracting muscles, and even a warm shower can provide soothing comfort to tired and tense women. Evidence of a growing trend: In the last 10 years, water-assisted labor has grown exponentially. In 1995 there were only three hospitals in the country that offered it. Now it is offered in more than 260 hospitals – 15% of all U.S. hospitals. In the last year alone there was a 4% increase, and this number is expected to grow in the coming year. 6. Doulas – A doula is a professional who is trained to provide emotional and tactical support a family through pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn care. Studies show that the presence of a doula reduces the need for medication, as well as the possibility of a Cesarean-section birth. Evidence of a growing trend: Every doula organization reports phenomenal growth in membership, and in the number of students in doula training classes. Doulas of North America (DONA), just one of several doula organizations reported a 10-fold increase in the number of certified doulas in the last 7 years. 7. Pregnancy Massage – A specialized form of bodywork, pregnancy massage addresses the specialized needs of a rapidly changing body. It enhances the function and alignment of muscles and joints, improves circulation and muscle tone, and relieves mental and physical fatigue. These benefits translate to lower levels of stress hormones, as reported in a study by Dr. Tiffany Field at the University of Miami School of Medicine. Evidence of a growing trend: Instructor Elien Alexander from The School of Healing Arts in San Diego, California, reported a 10-fold increase in the number of students becoming certified in pregnancy massage in the last 5 years.